‘Multiple Modernities’, Russia’s ‘Cursed Issues’ and the Endurance of Secular Modernity (a Theoretical Essay)

Russia provides interesting material to test Eisentadt’s hypothesis of ‘multiple modernities’ and the idea that such alleged ‘multiplicity’ is determined by the differences of religious traditions. I argue that in Russia all attempts at modernization, starting from Peter the Great and including its Soviet version, were oriented towards the western ‘cultural program of modernity’, as an ideal type, rather than toward creating some special ‘Russian pattern’ of it.