The Meaning of Symbols in Emerson’s Stand against the Lord’s Supper

The paper investigates the controversy over the Lord’s Supper between Ralph Waldo Emerson and the Second Church of Boston. We studied the text of Emerson’s sermon against the Lord’s Supper ascertaining possible theological divisions among the church members on the issues of Christ’s true nature and authority, as well as the meaning of bread and wine of the Communion. We reveal how the pastor foreshadowed the assumed reactions of his listeners while working on the text of his sermon.

Moscow Parishes in the End of the 19th — Beginning of the 20th Centuries: Share of Believers Participating in Sacraments of Confession and Communion Among Urban Orthodox Citizens

In this paper the author considers the proportion between Orthodox city people, who did or did not take part in sacraments of confession and communion in Moscow parish churches at the turn of the 19th and 20th centuries. The study is based upon a sample of data about the numbers of parishioners, which was collected from confession and clerical lists stored in the Central State Archive of Moscow. Significant changes over the period between 1897 and 1913 were discovered: the share of those recorded in confession lists decreased from 30% to 15%.