500th Anniversary of the Reformation: Ecumenism as Church and Public Phenomenon in Today’s Germany

The 500th anniversary of the Reformation in 2017 was held in Ger‑ many for the first time as an ecumenical event. Within its framework, a number of important official church documents about rethinking the history of the Reformation were adopted, common worship services held, and a large number of projects implemented at the region‑ al, national and international levels.

German Criminal Legislation in the Religious Sphere: History and Contemporary Discussions

Discussions about criminal law in the religious sphere have become relevant in Europe. This article presents the main milestones in the development of German criminal law in the field of «religious crimes» (insulting religious feelings, obstructing worship, desecration of religious objects, etc.) in the context of church‑state relations during different historical periods — the Middle Ages, Reformation, Enlightenment, Kulturkampf, National‑Socialism, and post‑war.

Religious Freedom and the German Circumcision Debate