Main Theme

Muslim Reformism in Dagestan (1900–1930)

The movement of Muslim reformism appeared in Dagestan in the early twentieth century. The reformers aimed to develop Islamic thought and law in line with the new realities. There were three forms of this movement. The first group of scholars proposed reforming only the Islamic educational system, while supporting the tradition of the Shafi’i legal school. The second party of reformers went further and advocated expanding the framework of the Shafi’i legal school as well as the reform of education.

Jadidism as a Paradigm for Studying Islam in the Russian Empire

This article is devoted to problematizing the research focus of academic literature on Islamic reformers in the Russian empire. Studies of the late imperial period typically devote the majority of their attention to modernization. Jadidists-reformers are considered as key protagonists and engines of history.

Islamic Law in the Situation of Rivalry of Different Legal Systems: The Case of the North Caucasus

The goal of this article is to provide a general overview of current research concerning the use of religious norms as an instrument of social regulation in the North Caucasus. The use of Islamic legal norms is an example of legal pluralism, i.e., parallel coexistence of different legal systems or their separate legal norms. The author gives a detailed analysis of two aspects of the use of religious norms to resolve conflicts in the eastern part of the North Caucasus.

Who Justifies Violence in Dagestan and Why? A Comparative Analysis of Value Profiles of Muslim Religious Groups in Dagestan

This article describes the results of quantitative value research into the Muslims of Dagestan and outlines the difference between religious groups present in this republic of Russia. It also presents information on the determinants of the justification of violence (in its different forms). According to this analysis, religious groups have certain value profiles. Sufis, for example, value obedience, disapprove of violence, and tend to trust people.

The Ideology of Russian-Language Jihadism before ISIS: Its Soviet Reception as the Origin of Post-Soviet Radicalism

This article is devoted to the origin and development of the propagandist ideology of Russian-language Jihadism, which is linked with the events in the Middle East over the last few years. It develops the idea that the jihadism in Russia should be considered not so much in the context of the Islamic issue or as a result of the influence of foreign countries, but rather as an example of post-Soviet radicalism, formed on a native ideological and intellectual base.

The Post-Secular Age of the Neomodern in the Middle East

This article is dedicated to an analysis of the current situation in the Arab world within the framework of Neomodernism theory and to the detection of the religious component of the socio-political process. According to Neomodernism theory, contemporary human society is at the point of transferring from the postmodern stage to a new one. This stage is characterized by the combination of three elements: the need for a new positive message, the archaic content of this message, and the use of postmodern tools to construct it.

Islam in the West or Western Islam? The Disconnect of Religion and Culture

The definitive presence of a huge Muslim population in Europe will have long-term consequences. There is, nevertheless, some debate about the size of the Muslim population, partly due to imprecise data, partly due to the difficulty of knowing who qualifies as Muslim. Is one defined as a Muslim because of one’s choice of religious community, or is one a Muslim by ethnic background? Beyond the demographic aspect, the fact that Islam is taking hold in Europe seems to call into question European identity. What does the rise of Islam in Europe entail in terms of shared culture and values?

“Islamic Reformation”: Positive Project or Artificial Concept?

Today the concept of “Islamic Reformation” acts as a universal framework for a large number of research projects within the field of Islamic and Muslim studies. This theory, mediated by Western modernization theory, claims a comprehensive understanding of Islamic reality and thus attracts many researchers. However, this universality results in a lack of attention to some important areas, which stimulates criticism from experts on Islam.

Islamic Reformation: The Heuristic Value of the Approach

German Criminal Legislation in the Religious Sphere: History and Contemporary Discussions

Discussions about criminal law in the religious sphere have become relevant in Europe. This article presents the main milestones in the development of German criminal law in the field of «religious crimes» (insulting religious feelings, obstructing worship, desecration of religious objects, etc.) in the context of church‑state relations during different historical periods — the Middle Ages, Reformation, Enlightenment, Kulturkampf, National‑Socialism, and post‑war.